Since 2005, an interdisciplinary team of researchers from the fields of education, public health, communications, HCI, and medicine have been working together to develop rich-media applications to promote HIV/AIDS prevention despite numerous social and cultural barriers. TeachAIDS is dedicated to addressing the challenges associated with providing health education through the creation of free, research-based, culturally-appropriate learning materials. We believe in harnessing medical and educational expertise and utilizing technology to freely disseminate HIV and AIDS materials around the world to those who need them most. AIDS is a preventable and treatable illness, and with the proper education, it can be controlled effectively.
Dr. Piya Sorcar
Founder and CEO
Dr. Piya Sorcar is the founder and CEO of TeachAIDS, a Lecturer at Stanford’s Graduate School of Education, and an Adjunct Affiliate at Stanford’s School of Medicine. She leads a team of world experts in medicine, public health and education to develop software that solves numerous persistent problems in HIV prevention. She sits on the Executive Board of The Tech Awards in Silicon Valley and has spoken at leading universities including Caltech, Columbia, Tsinghua University, MIT and Yale. She holds a Ph.D. in Learning Sciences and Technology Design from Stanford University. In 2011, MIT Technology Review named her to its TR35 list of the top 35 innovators in the world under 35. In 2016, she became the youngest recipient of Stanford’s Alumni Excellence in Education Award. email@example.com
Dr. Clifford Nass
Clifford Nass was a co-founder and founding board member of TeachAIDS. He was the Thomas M. Storke Professor at Stanford University, with appointments in Communication, Computer Science, Education, Law, and Sociology. He was also director of the Communication between Humans and Interactive Media Lab and co-director of the Kozmetsky Global Collaboratory. He is the creator of the Computers Are Social Actors paradigm, and the author of three books – The Media Equation, Wired for Speech, and The Man Who Lied to His Laptop – as well as over 125 papers on social-psychological aspects of human-technology interaction and non-parametric statistics. He passed away on November 2, 2013, but his legacy lives on in his work.
Co-Founder and Chairman
Shuman is a co-founder and Chairman of TeachAIDS. He is Chief Technology Officer of Shape Security, a Kleiner Perkins and Google Ventures-backed startup that protects the world’s leading organizations against sophisticated cyberattacks. He previously led global product management for click fraud protection at Google, where his team protected and enabled the $20+ billion annual revenue pay-per-click AdWords business. He joined Google in 2003 as a product manager for AdSense, responsible for the improvement of its artificial intelligence-based ad targeting systems, and helped launch Gmail. He holds an MBA from the MIT Sloan School of Management.
Ashwini Doshi is a co-founder and founding board member of TeachAIDS. She is a manager at a Big Four professional services firm in New York City. She provides technology risk advisory services focusing on Information Technology and business process controls and risk management in the financial services industry. She has worked on several projects related to information security risks, data migrations and cloud computing. She holds an M.S. in Management Science & Engineering from Stanford University. firstname.lastname@example.org
Amala Akkineni is a Trustee for TeachAIDS India Trust. Having starred in 50+ films before the age of 25, she left the film industry at the peak of her career to devote herself full time to the betterment of society, co-founding the reputable animal welfare NGO Blue Cross of Hyderabad. Along with serving as Chairperson of Blue Cross, she is on the Board of Green Peace India, and an Ambassador for both Al Gore’s The Climate Project – India and UNICEF – India. In 2012, she briefly returned to the screen in Life is Beautiful, for which she received critical acclaim and popular awards, including a CineMAA Award for Best Outstanding Actress and a Filmfare Awards South for Best Supporting Actress.
Jennifer Orr is the Founder and CEO of EyeWords, an ed-tech firm based in Ontario, Canada. EyeWords designs and develops evidence-based, multi-sensory literacy materials for general classroom use and delivers teacher professional development on differentiated literacy instruction for kindergarten students and struggling readers. Orr has 19 years of classroom experience and is currently a Teacher on Special Assignment with Thames Valley District School Board where she creates and delivers professional development, provides classroom consultation and designs visual resources for differentiated programming. She holds a B.A. and B.Ed. in Education and Teaching Specialists in Early Literacy and Special Education from the University of Western Ontario.
Casey W. Halladay
Founding Board Member
Casey W. Halladay is a founding board member of TeachAIDS. He is a partner of international business law firm McMillan LLP, based in its Toronto office. His practice focuses on cross-border transactions, foreign investment, competition law and antitrust. He has represented clients in proceedings before courts and regulatory agencies in the European Union, United Kingdom, United States and Canada. In 2012, he was named by Global Competition Review as one of the Top 40 Competition Lawyers in the World Under 40. He is admitted to practice in New York State, England and Wales, and Ontario, Canada, and is a graduate of the University of Western Ontario, the University of Ottawa Law School and Harvard Law School. email@example.com
Dr. Shelley Goldman
Shelley Goldman is Stanford University Professor of Learning Sciences & Technology Design at the School of Education; and Professor of Mechanical Engineering (by courtesy). Her interest in educational anthropology drives her research on real-world contexts of learning. She was the co-director of the multi-year Dunia Moja project, which studied the efficacy of state-of-the-art mobile phone technology in Uganda, South Africa, and Tanzania. At Stanford’s d.school K-12 Lab, she leads a project to learn how to effectively implement design thinking as a tool for classroom learning. Goldman is currently a principal investigator for the Stanford Education for Global HIV/AIDS, Infectious Disease, and Epidemics project. She holds an Ed.D. from Columbia University.
His Excellency Festus Mogae was President of Botswana from 1998 to 2008. Through his leadership, Botswana experienced steady economic growth that has characterized its post-independence history. President Mogae has won international praise for his indelible efforts to combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Botswana, one of the countries hit hardest by the disease. He is credited as one of the first heads of state in the world to get publicly tested for HIV. He was one of the first African leaders to chair his country’s National AIDS Council, which he continues to chair today. Under President Mogae’s administration, Botswana became the first country in Africa to provide free anti-retroviral therapy to citizens most in need. In 2004, he introduced routine “opt-out” HIV testing, which has since dramatically increased the number of people who know their HIV status. President Mogae has received a number of international awards, including the 2008 Mo Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership and the Grand Cross of the Legion d’honneur by French President Nicolas Sarkozy.
Anne Firth Murray
Anne Firth Murray is the founder of the Global Fund for Women, a grant-making foundation that has distributed over $61 million for advancing the rights of women and girls in 167 countries. She is the author of two books: From Outrage to Courage: Women Taking Action for Health and Justice and Paradigm Found: Leading and Managing for Positive Change. She has served on the boards of numerous organizations, including the African Women’s Development Fund, and as the chair of the Global Justice Center. In 2005, she was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize as a member of a group of women dedicated to social justice and peace.
Winner of the National Film Award, the most prestigious film award in India, Mahesh Bhatt is a prominent film director, producer, and screenwriter. Bhatt is known for his unconventional style of filmmaking and his unique depiction of subjects, which reflect many of his experiences in life. In the 1970s, he became a follower of Osho Rajneesh, and later found spiritual companionship and guidance with philosopher U.G. Krishnamurti, who Bhatt wrote about in two books, U.G. Krishnamurti: A Life and A Taste of Life: The Last Days of U.G. Krishnamurti.
Having starred in over 75 films, Nagarjuna Akkineni is one of the most prominent actors, directors, and producers in the Telugu film industry, with an audience of 75 million people. Through the National Film Awards, Nandi Awards, and Filmfare Awards, Akkineni has been honored for his artistic excellence by the Indian government, film critics, and the general public. Always promoting quality cinema with fresh entertainment, Akkineni has set precedents that have won him a permanent place in the hearts of millions.
Dr. Douglas K. Owens
Douglas K. Owens is Director of the Stanford Center for Health Policy and the Center for Primary Care and Outcome Research. He is a Professor of Medicine and of Health Research and Policy, and a Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. His research focuses on preventive and therapeutic interventions for various illnesses, including HIV and AIDS.
Nimmagadda Prasad is the Founder of Matrix Laboratories, a pharmaceutical company based in Hyderabad, India. With rich professional experience, Prasad acquired a pharmaceutical company that was on the verge of bankruptcy in 2000 and rechristened it as Matrix Laboratories. With his dynamic entrepreneurial initiatives, Prasad transformed Matrix into one of India’s major pharmaceutical companies in just six years. Matrix is now a part of Mylan, the world’s third-largest generic pharmaceutical company. Matrix launched “Project Hope” in 2003 to develop cost-effective medicines for HIV/AIDS treatment. On the back of its R&D breakthroughs, Matrix signed two historic agreements with the Clinton Foundation through their Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative (CHAI). Matrix currently provides medication to about 35% of HIV/AIDS patients in the developing world. Prasad created and funded the Nimmagadda Foundation to support institutions that work in facilitating healthcare, education and empowerment. He serves on the Executive Board of the Indian School of Business (ISB) and is associated with several other academic and research organizations.
Leith Abdulla is an ASCII Architect at Coursera. Prior to that, he was a co-founder of Diffbot Corp., which offers an innovative API that enables developers to easily create applications that apply computer vision algorithms for the purpose of extracting information and understanding the visual layouts of various webpages. At TeachAIDS, he works to optimize user interaction and user experience through enhanced interface designs to promote scalability. Previously he was a Software Engineer at IBM for their Pervasive Computing group. Awarded an NSF graduate fellowship, Leith attended Stanford’s Electrical Engineering Ph.D. program, where he was a researcher for their HCI department. His research interests include education technology, online transparency, and the future of decentralized computing.
Art Director and UI Lead
Avani Agarwal is currently a creative mobile specialist with Google, and formerly the art director for the front page of Yahoo! Inc., responsible for the design of special events pages, advertising modules, and development of Yahoo! applications for new devices. At TeachAIDS, she directs the construction of the TeachAIDS website, from wire-frame to polished product, oversees the site’s user experience, and consults on user-interface aspects of TeachAIDS videos. She holds a B.A. in Visual Communications with a minor in economics from Loyola University of Chicago and has had further education from Parsons School of Design.
Dr. Michele Barry
Michele Barry is the Senior Associate Dean of Global Health and Director for the Center for Innovation in Global Health at the Stanford School of Medicine. As Director of the Yale/Stanford Johnson & Johnson Global Health Scholars Program, she has sent over 1000 physicians overseas to underserved areas to help strengthen health infrastructure in low resource settings. She is a past President of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and an elected member of the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Science. She serves on the Board of Directors of the Bill and Melinda Gates funded Consortium of Universities involved in Global Health (CUGH) and the Foundation of the Advancement of International Education (FAIMER). Her scholarly interests include tropical medicine, global health ethics, and globalization’s impact on health disparities.
Dr. Eran Bendavid
Eran Bendavid is an Assistant Professor in the School of Medicine and an affiliate at the Center for Health Policy at Stanford University. He is an infectious diseases physician with wide-ranging interests related to HIV and global health. In his day to day work, Eran explores the economic, political, and medical conditions that can lead to improved health in developing countries. A graduate of Dartmouth College and Harvard Medical School, Eran recently completed his residency and fellowship at Stanford Medical School, where he now cares for patients with HIV and related conditions. Eran has ongoing projects in South Africa, Rwanda, and Uganda.
Dr. Terrence Blaschke
Terrence Blaschke is a Senior Program Officer in Clinical Pharmacology at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology at Stanford University School of Medicine. His research examines the clinical pharmacology of drugs used with HIV-infected patients. His research focuses on the quality of antiretroviral drugs in less developed countries and the ability of patients’ to access drugs. In addition, Dr. Blaschke collaborates with the AMPATH program in Eldoret, Kenya, a comprehensive initiative to build the public sector’s HIV prevention and treatment capacity in urban and rural settings. He is on the Organizing Committee for a workshop on Clinical Pharmacology in HIV therapy. He is also an advisor for the Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation. He holds an M.D. from Columbia University.
Dr. Martin Carnoy
Martin Carnoy is the Vida Jacks Professor of Education and Economics at Stanford University. He writes on the economic value of education, on the underlying political economy of educational policy, and on the financing and resource allocation aspects of educational production. Much of his work is comparative and international and investigates the impact of global economic and social change on the way educational systems are organized. He is the author of numerous books including, Sustaining the New Economy: Work, Family and Community in the Information Age (Harvard, 2000), The Charter School Dust-Up (co-author, 2005); Cuba’s Academic Advantage (2007), and Vouchers and Public School Performance (2007). He holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago.
Dr. Rafiq Dossani
South Asia Expert
Dr. Rafiq Dossani is a Senior Economist at RAND Corporation. His research interests include technology policy, higher education and South Asian security & regionalism. Previously, Dossani was a senior research scholar at Stanford University’s Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center and Director of the Stanford Center for South Asia. He has authored/edited the following books: Higher Education: Triumph of the BRICs?; Knowledge Perspectives of New Product Development; Does South Asia Exist – Prospects for Regional Integration; India Arriving; The Prospects for Peace in South Asia; and Telecommunications Reform in India. Dossani holds a B.A. in economics from St. Stephen’s College, New Delhi, India; an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta, India; and a Ph.D. in finance from Northwestern University.
Wylie Greig is President of One World Children’s Fund where he focuses on its internal organization and operations. His interest in grassroots economic and social development began as a volunteer for the Peace Corps in India during 1966-68. He also worked for CARE, Inc. stationed in India, Afghanistan and Jordan. He retired from Deutsche Bank in 2006 as a Managing Director of Real Estate Infrastructure and Private Equity, its global real estate management arm. He currently advises international and domestic real estate investment management businesses. He holds a Masters degree in City Planning from the University of Pennsylvania and an M.B.A. from the Wharton School.
Dr. Seble Kassaye
Seble Kassaye is trained in Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases, and Epidemiology. Her research interests include issues related to mother-to-child transmission, HIV prevention, drug resistance, and the monitoring of HIV treatment. She has worked as an instructor of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine at Stanford University and has practiced medicine as an Infectious Diseases physician at Stanford Hospital and the San Mateo County Medical Center. She is now working as a Senior Research Officer at the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation. She received her M.S. in Epidemiology from Stanford University and her M.D. from the University of Chicago.
Dr. David Katzenstein
David Katzenstein is a Professor of Infectious Diseases at the Stanford School of Medicine. He co-founded and is currently the Principal Investigator of the Zimbabwe AIDS Prevention Project, a community-based research organization. He conducts HIV-related research throughout the United States, Africa, and Asia. His recent laboratory and clinical efforts span the AIDS Clinical Trials Group and HIV Prevention Trials Network. He is focused on prevention of viral evolution, mother-to-child-transmission, and drug resistance in the context of scaling-up antiretroviral drug treatment for AIDS in Africa and Asia. He holds an M.D. from the University of California San Diego School of Medicine.
Aparna Khare is a Speech Scientist at Amazon working on speech and language technologies. She was part of the science team that launched the Amazon Echo, a first of its kind wireless speaker that uses far field speech recognition. Prior to that, she was a software engineer at Cisco where she worked on developing a speaker identification system to identify speakers in long videos and use the metadata to make videos searchable and navigable. At TeachAIDS, she works on managing several technical and product related efforts and supported in the development and launch of 14 new animated software versions. Aparna is an active member of the Stanford chapter of Asha for Education, a nonprofit focused on bringing about socio-economic change in India by means of education. She holds an M.S. from Texas A&M University.
Dr. Paul Kim
Paul Kim is Assistant Dean of the Stanford University School of Education. He has been leading various academic technology initiatives and teaching graduate level courses related to learning technology and digital innovations at Stanford since 2001. His courses focus on contextualized innovations in education, mobile empowerment design, and enterprising higher education systems. He is currently one of leading researchers for Programmable Open Mobile Internet, an National Science Foundation project to develop and evaluate wireless mobile computing and interactive systems for K-20 learning and assessment scenarios. He received his Ph.D. in Educational Technology from the University of Southern California.
Dr. Cheryl Koopman
Psychological and Behavioral Studies Advisor
Cheryl Koopman is Research Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. She has numerous publications focused on psychological consequences of highly stressful events and on evaluating the effects of educational and mental health interventions. Her research emphasizes HIV-related attitudes, risk behavior, and quality of life among gay and runaway adolescents, HIV-positive men and women, and others in numerous countries, including India, China, Haiti, Botswana, Kenya, South Africa, and Malawi. She holds a Ph.D. in educational psychology from the University of Virginia.
Marie Kagaju Laugharn
Marie Kagaju Laugharn is a member of the Seeds of Empowerment at Stanford University’s School of Education. The project is dedicated to adapting technological advances for international development. While at Stanford, Laugharn also lectures on governance and HIV/AIDS in Africa. Previously, she worked as a Political Affairs Officer at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons at The Haguge, Netherlands. At the United Nations Development Programme in Mali, Laugharn managed projects on governance, elections, and peace-building. She received her M.A. in English from the Université Nationale du Rwanda and her Bachelor of Arts in Economics from Lycée Notre Dame de Citeaux in Kigali, Rwanda.
Director of Mobile Research and Development
Sarah Lewis designs and develops mobile learning technologies and research programs for classrooms, informal learning contexts, and larger networked collaborations. As the Director of Mobile Research and Development at TeachAIDS, she is currently building interactive TeachAIDS applications for mobile devices and directing new research efforts to study heath education in mobile contexts. A Ph.D. candidate in Learning Sciences Technology Design in the Stanford School of Education, she also conducts research in the Computer Science department at Stanford on mobile technologies to support science classrooms. She holds a Masters in Education from Stanford, and a B.A. in African History from Dartmouth College.
Gary Mukai is the director of the Stanford Program on International and Cross-Cultural Education (SPICE), Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. SPICE focuses its work in three areas: (1) curriculum development for elementary and secondary schools; (2) teacher professional development; and (3) distance learning education. Before joining SPICE in 1988, he was a school teacher in Japan and California for ten years. He is a graduate of U.C. Berkeley and Stanford University.
Dr. Roy Pea
Learning Sciences and Technology Design Advisor
Roy Pea is David Jacks Professor of Education and the Learning Sciences at Stanford University, Co-PI of the LIFE Center and Co-Director of the Human Sciences and Technologies Advanced Research (H-STAR) Institute. He has published widely on K-12 learning and education, especially in science, math and technology, fostered by advanced technologies including scientific visualization, on-line communities, digital video collaboratories and mobile computers. He is co-author of the 2010 National Education Technology Plan for the US Department of Education. In 2004-2005, he was President of the International Society for the Learning Sciences. He also served from 1999-2009 as a Director for Teachscape, a company he co-founded with CEO Mark Atkinson that provides comprehensive K-12 teacher professional development services incorporating web-based video case studies of standards-based teaching and communities of learners. He received his doctorate in developmental psychology from Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar.
Dr. Joel Samoff
Joel Samoff is an experienced educator, researcher, and evaluator, with a background in history, political science, and education. He researches and teaches about education and development at Stanford University. Concerned with public policy as well as research, and especially with the links between them, Samoff works regularly with international agencies involved in African education. He has served as the principal adviser for the Joint Evaluation of External Support to Basic Education. He is the North America Editor of the International Journal of Educational Development and serves on the Advisory Boards of the Comparative Education Review and Development and Change.
Dr. Tina Seelig
Tina Seelig is the Executive Director for the Stanford Technology Ventures Program. She teaches courses on creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship in the Management Science and Engineering department, and within the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford. Tina has won several awards, including the 2009 Gordon Prize from the National Academy of Engineering, recognizing her as a national leader in engineering education. Her latest book is inGenius: A Crash Course on Creativity. Tina has a Ph.D. from Stanford University Medical School where she studied Neuroscience.
Dr. Robert Siegel
Robert Siegel is an Associate Professor (Teaching) in the Department of Microbiology & Immunology, the Center of African Studies, and the Program in Human Biology at Stanford University. He is the Director of the Preclinical Infectious Disease Curriculum, and was one of the original Co-directors of Global Health Scholarly Concentration at Stanford Medical School. His research explores medical education and curriculum development, particularly areas pertaining to infectious disease, virology, HIV, and molecular biology. Siegel has helped develop HIV educational materials for a variety of organizations, and served as an advisor for numerous NGOs concerned with education and development. He has received many awards and honors for his dedication to research and teaching, including the Gores Award for Excellence in Teaching. He has a Ph.D. in Molecular Biology from the University of Colorado at Boulder, and an M.D. and Master’s in Education from Stanford University.
Rachel Sklar is a writer and social entrepreneur based in New York. She is the co-founder of Change The Ratio, which increases visibility and opportunity for women in tech & new media, and TheLi.st, a media company driven by that same mission. A former lawyer who writes about media, politics, culture & technology, she was a founding editor at Mediaite and the Huffington Post. She has written for outlets like the New York Times, Newsweek, Mother Jones and The Daily Beast, and she speaks widely at conferences, on panels and on TV. Rachel is a TechStars mentor and an advisor to several startups, including Vox Media, Siftee, Lover.ly, Votizen, The Daily Muse, Honestly Now & TeachAIDS. Rachel was named to the Silicon Alley 100 in 2009, 2010 and 2011, FastCompany’s “League of Extraordinary Women” and has earned numerous honors and awards for her writing. She graduated with honors from the University of Toronto Faculty of Law, where she was valedictorian.
Dr. Randall Stafford
Randall Stafford is an Associate Professor of Medicine and the Director of the Program on Prevention Outcomes and Practices at Stanford University. He is trained in both Internal Medicine and Epidemiology. Before coming to Stanford in 2001, he was on the faculty of Harvard University and Massachusetts General Hospital. His research focuses on: 1) evaluating the quality and cost-effectiveness of how chronic disease medications are used, 2) conducting randomized clinical trials testing the efficacy of online prevention tools and nurse case-management, and 3) performing comparative effectiveness research, including the formulation of related health care policy.
Dr. Timothy K. Stanton
Timothy K. Stanton, Ph.D., serves as Director of the Public Service Medical Scholars Program (PriSMS) and Stanford University’s Bing Overseas Studies Program in Cape Town. Furthermore, as Lecturer in Health Research Policy in the School of Medicine at Stanford, he focuses on public decision-making in local areas and the process and practice of community service. He also consults extensively in service-learning program development and assessment for organizations such as the National Commission on Resources for Youth, U.S. Department of Education, and Campus Compact. Stanton’s current research interests focus on student and faculty development related to service-learning.
Dr. Young Sung Lee
Young Sung Lee, M.D., Ph.D., has been leading the Korean Medical Research Information Center, a Ministry of Education, Science and Technology funded organization, focusing on R&D in medical informatics, Virtual Reality-based medical training, and health communication and promotion policies and programs. Dr. Lee is Professor of College of Medicine at Chungbuk National University and was a visiting scholar at Stanford University Medical Media and Information Technology. He has led many global health literacy initiatives covering diseases such as AIDS, Avian Influenza, cancer, and other diseases. He was a member of the Committee on Cutting-edge Converging and Interdisciplinary Technologies, National Science and Technology Council, the Nation’s highest decision-making body on science and technology policies under the President of Republic of Korea.
Dr. Lucy Thairu
Lucy Thairu is Assistant Professor of Global Public Health at Touro University. Based on field studies in various countries in Africa, her research has emphasized the relevance of the social and economic context for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Dr. Thairu has partnered with the WHO, UNICEF, and PATH to address global health needs. She was previously an Interim Associate Director at the Stanford University Center for African Studies, and a postdoctoral fellow in the Division of Infectious Disease at Stanford University School of Medicine. After high school in Kenya, she studied Biochemistry in Nantes, France, and received her Ph.D. in International Nutrition from Cornell University.
Dr. Decker Walker
Decker Walker is a Professor Emeritus at Stanford University School of Education. His work focuses on technology-based education programs and practices. In particular, he examines the ways in which technology can improve material and program design to foster authentic, adventurous teaching. He has co-author several books, been a contributing author in various texts, and written numerous articles. His book Fundamentals of Curriculum is a rigorous examination of curriculum theory, research, and practice in American schools and classrooms. He received his B.S. in Physics and M.A. in Natural Science from Carnegie Mellon University and completed his Ph.D. in Education at Stanford University.